Always refer to laptops by their specific model number when troubleshooting. There are a ton of "Blade Pro 2017" variants.
Thunderbolt and DP are not the same standard. If you have a Thunderbolt port that cannot support DP1.2+ you fall outside of the minimum requirements.
The Vive Pro's primary requirement is Displayport 1.2+. You have a USB-C port on that laptop. You'll need to contact Razer directly and confirm that the specific model number you have on hand can support Displayport 1.2+ output via the USB-C port. If they say the port does not support Displayport 1.2+ signaling, your laptop does not meet the Pro's Miniumum requirements (and you'll have the same compatibility issue with all HMDs that require DP 1.2+ such as the Valve Index,Oculus Rift S, Pimax 5K, ect).
I have no direct experince with that cable and cannot speak to it's compatiblity. That said, the primary things you want to look for are 4K support at 20GPBS bandwidth and this one seems to meet both of those reqs.
I strongly recommend not spending any additional $ on making this work until you call Razer and ascertain info about the signaling capabilities of your USB-C port. If they tell you it's wired correctly, I would recommend trying the Club3D adapter; if they tell you it's incompatible, unfortunately your system will be unable to drive the HMD (or any HMD with similar DP1.2+ requirements).
To reach Viveport's customer service team, email email@example.com
To connect with a live support agent for hardware support, go to www.vive.com/support, click on "contact us" in the top righthand corner, and then opt to speak with a Live Chat agent David R
Technical Specialist - San Francisco, CA; Monday-Friday